The Development Phase

The Development Phase accounts for impacts on SD that directly result from activities in-volved in software development, as well as indirectly involved activities, e.g. proportional impacts of common corporate departments.

Environmental impacts to be considered in-clude, for example, electrical energy that is necessary to power the workstations of soft-ware developers and other employees, electrical energy and natural resources that are necessary to operate the IT infrastructure (e.g. networking devices, servers, and storages), energy that is necessary for heating and air conditioning, electrical energy that is necessary for offices lighting, or energy for transportation purposes like long distance business trips for meetings with customers and the development team, and even the employees’ daily way to work.
Social impacts can be working conditions and payment of offshore workers (e.g. developers, type setters), which have consequences for the workers and their families.

Some of these impacts can be mitigated by introducing teleworking and teleconferencing, or by replacing material products with ade-quate immaterial substitutes (second-order effects). This in turn may induce, e.g. changes in organizations, software development methods, or life styles (third-order effects).